Saturday, February 29, 2020

Aldous Huxley’s Shakespearian Dystopia

The Shakespearean dystopia of Aldous Huxley Shakespeare’s works revel as masterpieces centuries after their debut, influencing generations of writers including 20th century author Aldous Huxley. Huxley’s 1932 novel, Brave New World, stands as a distinct reincarnation of Shakespeare’s The Tempest, fusing a disturbing reality of a dystopian future with the key aspects of a classical Shakespearian piece. Ira Grushow highlights the similarities of these two pieces to determine Huxley’s question between innovation and emotion. Grushow reveals astounding evidence that links Huxley’s Brave New World to Shakespeare’s The Tempest by acknowledging the characteristics of Shakespeare’s piece and how they overlay Huxley’s critique on society and human values. Huxley’s novel, at its core, comes across as a reincarnation of The Tempest. Grushow exposes this by drawing comparisons between characters in both pieces. The article specifies how Bernard compares to Caliban as a â€Å"deformed monster and unwilling slave of Prospero,† (Grushow 43). Huxley intentionally made Bernard â€Å"eight centimetres short of the standard Alpha height,† and points it out continuously as a deformity (Huxley 64). Additionally, Huxley displays Mustapha Mond as â€Å"a father†¦to†¦ all under his care† (Grushow 44). A direct connection to Prospero, the father and controller in Shakespeare’s piece, Huxley demonstrates deeper insight into the traits of Shakespeare’s Prospero through Mond. Mond meets a different end then Prospero which allows Huxley to explore a new perspective while still keeping constant the main character traits. Even the character’s actions mirror the play as near the end Bernard â€Å"j umped up, ran across the room, and stood gesticulating in front of the Controller,† (Huxley 226). In surrender toward Mond, as a slave would to a master, Bernard proves to be a recreation of Caliban. The comparison of the two works enlighten new perspectives on old characters. Grushow’s article outlines Huxley’s critique on society through Huxley’s use of Shakespeare. Shakespeare’s work symbolizes classical literature and art in our society, it remains relevant because it resonates with reader. In Huxley’s world, connection and art mean nothing, everything Shakespeare’s work epitomizes results in misery in the World State. Huxley writes, â€Å"Making ninety-six human beings grow where only one grew before. Progress,† (Huxley 6). Blunt and effective, he glorifies progress and happiness whereas Shakespeare idealized passion. This shows the â€Å"full measure of the difference between Shakespeare’s vision of an ideal world and Huxley’s† (Grushow 43). The â€Å"ideal world† that Huxley portrays is convincing, nevertheless. Innovation and progress bring the promise of happiness in contrast to the tragedies many of Shakespeare’s heroes met. Huxley is arguing that society may be b etter off abandoning the arts, that â€Å"community, identity, stability,† and progress champion as the key aspects to an ideal world (Huxley 3). Even with the underlying darkness and horror that Brave New World displays, Huxley’s rhetoric succeeds in portraying a perfect world and vilifying the values Shakespeare represented. Huxley’s intentional comparisons to The Tempest help readers understand the disparity between passion and happiness and how both cannot coexist. By the end of the novel Huxley leaves his readers a dilemma with the things we value including art, emotion, and purpose. He argues that our morals and ideals counteract our nature as human beings. As Grushow states, â€Å"is his [John’s] code of morality any less obsolete†¦ in our new world than it is in the Brave New World?† John, who roughly represented modern society in contrast to the advanced World State, was the reader’s connection into Huxley’s world. Disgusted and horrified from the first page, reader sympathized easily with John and thought him honorable because he portrayed values we glorify including chastity, sacrifice to higher beings, and self-denial. However, by the end, readers recoiled from John whipping himself and denying himself even small pleasures like making a bow. Huxley describes â€Å"he shouted at every blow as though it were Lenina† (Huxley 252). John thinks of punishing Lenina, and, in the frenzy, sees her, becomes delusional from soma, and sleeps with her. It becomes apparent that passions and values that the reader supports cannot exist in the happy civilized world Huxley created. John, succumbing to sleeping with Lenina and killing himself in shame exemplifies the death of our ideals. Along with Shakespeare and our advancement in science, Huxley binds together the past and present to create an ideal future that disposes of the values of society. Huxley reincarnates Shakespeare’s characters from The Tempest and steers them into a new world, an ideal world that mirrors our own, as proven by Grushow. By constantly alluding to Shakespeare, Huxley connects a past filled with morality and values to his future of apathy and progress. Huxley presents to us a warning, that if our society progresses toward a brave new world as Huxley sees it, it will sacrifice our beliefs for the promise of happiness. This caution of the future lets readers stop and question as they successfully feel the effect of Huxley’s message. Works cited Grushow, Ira. â€Å"Brave New World and The Tempest.† College English, vol. 24, no. 1, 1962, pp. 42–45. Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World. New York: Harper Bros., 1946. Print.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

John McCain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

John McCain - Essay Example Citizens traditionally invest their trust in leaders whom they perceive representing society's ethical principles. Without ethos, leaders have little chance of uniting society for the advancement of their causes. The ideal leader is able to persuade his constituents with both logically and emotionally appealing arguments. For this reason, logos and pathos are critical components of a successful leader's character. While good leaders might excel in either ethos, pathos or logos, truly great leaders incorporate all of these aspects into their characters. Both Pericles and John McCain are able to do this by continuously seeking to mitigate their shortcomings while developing their attributes. Both are known for having lived their lives according to the principles they espouse, giving them much credibility. McCain displays superior ethos when referring to the war in Iraq because he has the military experience to back up his words. While other candidates may pay lip service to the same matters, McCain has an educated opinion derived from twenty-two years in the military. McCain, like Pericles, displays his superior ethics through both his convictions and his actions. Pericles firmly believed that rights and privileges entail responsibilities and obligations. McCain draws similar conclusions, championing individual responsibility at all levels. "For all the grandiose promises made in this campaign, has any candidate spoken honestly to the American people about the government's role and failings about individual responsibilities" he said. (McCain on CNN, 2007) McCain believes that the government has a responsibility to the people, but in turn the people have a duty to participate in the politics and defense of their country. As McCain said during a 1958 speech at the U.S. Naval Academy, "If you find faults with our country, make it a better one. If you are disappointed with the mistakes of government, join its ranks and work to correct them." Indeed, political participation and service to state and society are the responsibility and obligation of every American citizen (Dinan, 2008). Pericles was known throughout the ancient Greek city-states for the emotional strength of his arguments. Pericles motivated the Athenians during the Peloponnesian War in a similar way to how McCain inspires Americans during the troubled times of today. McCain realizes that logical arguments based upon facts, figures and reasons are not enough to move society. Thus, he makes extensive use of emotionally appealing arguments, demonstrating his impeccable pathos. While advocating the benefits of national service programs, McCain keeps data out of the picture. Rather, he utilizes sentimental yet strong verbiage to illustrate his points, such as "those who claim their liberty but not their duty to the civilization that ensures it live a half-life, indulging their self-interest at the cost of their self-respect. Sacrifice for a cause greater than self-interest, however, and you invest your life with the eminence of that cause (McCain, 2001)." I look to a great leader for inspiration and motivation. This great leader must necessarily match Pericles' embodiment of ethos, logos and pathos. McCain's ethical convictions and credibility; logical and reasoning ability; and emotionally appealing arguments, make him a modern day Pericles and I admire him for

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Should animals be use for medical research Annotated Bibliography

Should animals be use for medical research - Annotated Bibliography Example In this book, the author seeks to put forward that even though animals suffer, they have no moral entitlement. The fact that they do not also value their lives, their lives have no intrinsic value which makes it better to use them for experimentation than how we would use human beings. The book helps in opening up the debate and showing where the different perspectives that are posited on this issue. It is therefore an important book to the topic by providing perspectives on both sides of the debate. The article could be useful to the topic on whether animals should be used for medical research. It shows the inhumane treatment of these animals thus showing us how it is important that this process should be put to a halt. The article talks about the latest events in the U.S whereby the use of Chimpanzees in conducting medical tests may be put to a halt. According to this article the â€Å"Great Ape Protection and Cost Savings Act† that is now in the congress seeks to impose a ban on the invasive research performed on all great apes. This article actually helps to show that trends in the long going debate about the use of animals in medical research are almost being concluded. This article is actually important to this topic because it shows that the world is now coming to accept the fact that animals are not supposed to be used for medical research. While it is recognized that medical research has taken it to greater heights in the tremendous changes it has made in human beings life through creation of drugs and vaccines as well as medical practices, there are people who still feel that it should be stopped. This book helps to understand these controversies and acts as a response to those against the use of animals in