Friday, January 24, 2020
The History of Auditing Abstract The evolution of auditing is a complicated history that has always been changing through historical events. Auditing always changed to meet the needs of the business environment of that day. Auditing has been around since the beginning of human civilization, focusing mainly, at first, on finding efraud. As the United States grew, the business world grew, and auditing began to play more important roles. In the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s and early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s, people began to invest money into large corporations. The Stock Market crash of 1929 and various scandals made auditors realize that their roles in society were very important. Scandals and stock market crashes made auditors aware of deficiencies in auditing, and the auditing community was always quick to fix those deficiencies. The auditorsÃ¢â¬â¢ job became more difficult as the accounting principles changed, and became easier with the use of internal controls. These controls introduced the need for testing; not an in-depth detailed audit. Auditing jobs would have to change to meet the changing business world. The invention of computers impacted the auditorsÃ¢â¬â¢ world by making their job at times easier and at times making their job more difficult. Finally, the auditorsÃ¢â¬â¢ job of certifying and testing companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ financial statements is the backbone of the business world. Introduction Auditing has been the backbone of the complicated business world and has always changed with the times. As the business world grew strong, auditorsÃ¢â¬â¢ roles grew more important. The auditorsÃ¢â¬â¢ job became more difficult as the accounting principles changed. It also became easier with the use of internal controls, which introduced the need for testing, not a complete audit. Scandals and stock market crashes made auditors aware of deficiencies in auditing, and the auditing community was always quick to fix those deficiencies. Computers played an important role of changing the way audits were performed and also brought along some difficulties. A Brief History of Early Auditing Auditing has existed since the beginning of human society. Auditing was used mostly for the detection of fraud and was done through extensive detailed examination from ancient times until the late nineteenth century (Lee, 1988). Fraud was a great concern during the early history of auditing, because internal controls were not used or not used effectively until the twentieth century. The late nineteenth century was a turning point in auditing history, when laws like the English Companies Act of 1862 were enacted.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Piper Kerman is a Smith College graduate who is serving thirteen months in prison, from 2004 to 2005, for a drug trafficking and money laundering crime she committed nearly ten years before. For most of her entire stay Piper is placed in a minimum-security prison in Danbury, Connecticut. I am from Avon, Connecticut so because her story was so close to home it immediately struck me as interesting. Her experience is eye opening, and as the book progresses you can see a slight transformation from a Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ person to a hardened convict. Pipers book, Orange is the New Black, gives insight into the realities of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s minimum-security prisons in the United States and how the criminal justice system works today. Which, as we find out, can be a long and frustrating process. While it seems a bit absurd that Piper is being locked away for a crime committed ten years ago, I do think it is justified. What she did was illegal and when you break the laws you go to jail. That being said, I can understand why one would think that this was not justified for two reasons, the first being the fact that she committed her drug trafficking and money laundering crime ten years ago. This may be true, but that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean it was wrong, you still need to be punished for your actions. The second reason this would be seen as unfair is because she was young and stupid when she did it. This I do not think is an excuse at all because that does not exclude her from knowing what she was doing and knowing it was wrong. I want to add though, while I agree that the punishment for her crimes were justified, as in the prison sentence, I do not think it was fair that the whole process took that long in general. To make an accurate assessment, though, I think that you have to l ook at the goals of punishment and see if each goal was met as well. When thinking about the goals of punishment the first that comes to mind is retribution. This is punishment based on a perceived need for vengeance, or that people should receive what they deserve. If you work hard you areÃ rewarded and if you break the rules you get punished, therefore Piper has to payback for what she did. In this case it is hard to decide if Piper received a fair punishment. When she got charged with money laundering she was helping an organization operate. Even if she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know the full consequences of her actions, she knew that is was wrong. The drug organization was not only using it to support its buying of drugs, but it could also have been doing many other horrible things. Although she says she had no idea what was happening with the money or how it was being used, we have to remember that this is only her side of the story and that the judge ruling on her case has so many liars that would say the same thing. Because the punishment was from so long ago it seems like it snuck up on her and was unfair, but I feel that if she had been punished right after her crime was committed everyone would not feel as bad about it. I feel that the retribution she received was justified for her actions, even if they were ten years ago. The second goal of punishment is incapacitation. The purpose of this is to separate offenders from their community as to reduce their ability to commit certain crimes. In this case, I do not think that this goal was accomplished. Although Piper had committed a crime, she was not going to commit any more; she had given that life up and was trying to move on. The reason for incapacitation is if you think someone will commit a crime again that could negatively affect the community. As I said, not only was Piper moving on from her other life, she was making great steps to become a mature adult, from starting a relationship to thinking hard about her future. I want to point out the difference between retribution and incapacitation and why I agree with one and not the other. I think that Piper should have been punished for what she did, that is retribution. On the other hand, I do not think that Piper was a threat to her community, and that there was not a chance she would do it again. So in the sense while I do agree that it was necessary as a punishment, I do not think that it was necessary to stop her from committing another crime again. Deterrence is the third goal of punishment and is compatible with incapacitation. Deterrence is the threat of punishment to convince peopleÃ that the crime or activity they are committing is not worth it. There are two types of deterrence in my opinion and one of them was successful while the other was not. In Pipers case, while she did think about the fact that when she was smuggling the money over she might get caught, it did not deter her from saying no. Piper still decided that she would drug traffic and money launder so obviously the idea of going to prison did not affect her decision. So, in this case, I would say that no, under this meaning deterrence was not met. On the other hand, another form of deterrence is the idea that you can reduce the amount of repeat offenders coming back again and again. Under this definition I believe that in Pipers case this deterrence was effective. Although when she committed the crime the first time she was not thinking about the punishment at all really. Now, she canÃ¢â¬â¢t get the thought of prison out of her head for a day, let alone if she was going to do something illegal. Her experience was so life changing it will affect the way she thinks and acts from the time she gets out, and I would consider that a success as far as deterrence. The fourth and final goal of punishment is rehabilitation, or the idea that you can change the way an offender thinks and behaves into a more positive form. There are many different forms of rehabilitation but most focus on the reduction of criminal offences through support and help from the community. The hope being that the offender will change their attitude toward what they have done and make them see that the behavior was wrong. This is where I feel there was a major problem with Pipers experience. The entire time I was reading the book I was waiting for her to explain how sad she was that she had committed the crime or that she realized it was wrong. Instead of her saying these things, the only thing I heard was the fact that she thought it was ridiculous for her to be here for so long, or that most of the people in the camp didnÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve to be in for what they did. While she was locked up she was thinking and writing, but it was not about how she realized that what she had done was wrong, but instead it was how badly she missed everyone she loved. She did not mention the fact that she realized her wrong doing and that if she hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t had of done those things, so long ago, that she never would have been in this situation, instead she complained that her sentence was unfair and that she was a nice lady who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve this. This is the problem I have with the criminal justice system now a days. ItÃ seems as if most of the ladies in the prison with Piper were doing the same thing, waiting to get out of jail. These people are not thinking about what they did to get into these situations, trying to better themselves and getting prepared for the outside world. Instead it seemed as if they were only concerned with making their time in prison as nice as possible and in a sense trying to forget why they are there in the first place. They focused on making their time in prison more comfortable and finding out ways to get what they wanted while breaking the rules. I think that there are different reasons for this and they are not all the prisoners fault. One of the major problems was that while Danbury had some working programs, there were just not enough classrooms that were functional, or teachers, to be effective. Release back into the community is an important step that needs to be done in the right steps to succeed. On the other hand, in my opinion, the prisoner is in for doing something wrong and being punished. If they had not committed the crime they would not be taken away from their ch ances to be successful in the world. While it may seem tough, it is just another form of privileges being taken away, if they had not committed the crime it would never have happened. So, in the end, Pipers stay was justified in my opinion and she had it coming to her in the end, you cannot expect to do something illegal and get away with it. I believe that throughout the book, while certain aspects of punishment were touched upon, not all were met. While she gave retribution (ten years later), and next time will defiantly be deterred, IÃ¢â¬â¢m not to sure how successful the rehabilitation part was or if the incapacitation was necessary. I do think that it is necessary to point out though that Pipers case is not how it is in a lot of cases due to the fact that she has a loving husband and strong family ties. In the end though, Piper had a life changing experience that will affect her for the rest of her life, from her experiences in prison to her work on the board of WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Prison Association.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
The longest, deepest, and most pervasive depression in American history was this that lasted from 1929 to 1939.This depression was one of the greatest economic catastrophes in history; in fact, the real per capita gross domestic product was still below its 1929 level a decade later in comparison of the other depressions who had adjusted their GDP by then. The Great Depression was able to spread its effects and influence into every aspect of the lives of the people that were unfortunate to experience the depression, from the economic facet to our social life as well. The depression was mainly caused by over speculation of the stock market, overproduction in industry and agriculture, and the stock market crash. Franklin D. Roosevelt was a big element of the actions taken to get out of this depression: The New Deal. The important question is: what did he contribute to the American society? Before the great depression, mass production problems and World War I in the economy accumulated with each other and finally caused the depression. These problems were already existing factors since the roaring twenties. Yes, the roaring twenties were years of success, however they were built over a thick brick of glitches. The main problems were that world war I was extremely expensive and turned out as a setback to the economy of the United States; also people could not sustain themselves anymore, so they started using what was called Ã¢â¬Å"creditÃ¢â¬ , very similar to our credit cards, and mostShow MoreRelatedFranklin D. Roosevelt And The Great Depression1337 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages1930Ã¢â¬â¢s is known as the Great Depression. Throughout this period, millions of citizens placed their hope and security in the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt as president. Amidst FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s term, he was able to enhance the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s hopes and morale with the invention of the New De al. The New Deal was able to reconstruct AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and instill new programs and policies for the American people, but it lacked the potential to put a forceful end to the Great Depression, due to staggering unemploymentRead MoreThe Great Depression Of Franklin D. Roosevelt1616 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesperiod commonly known as the Great Depression. Beginning around the 1930s, the Great Depression is probably one of the most significant economic downfalls in America that also ended up affecting the global economy. Around 1933, about 14 millions American citizens saw unemployment, the national income was over 50 percent down, and production of industrial goods dropped to one third of what it was in 1929. In response to this time of devastation, Franklin D. Roosevelt took over from Herbert HooverRead MoreThe Great Depression By Franklin D. Roosevelt1179 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Great Depression is described as: Ã¢â¬Å"the deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the Western industrialized world. In the United States, it began soon after the stock market crash of October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out millions of investors.Ã¢â¬ 1 This is known as an extremely dark time in the history of the world, as the economic system that was supposed to be a fair playing ground for the masses, showed the amount of damage it could have upon livesRead MoreFranklin D. Roosevelt And The Great Depression Essay2145 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesStates. In this essay Franklin D. Roosevelt and Obama both got re-elected and did the best they could to make America great again. A speech is power, it is to persuade, convert, and compel. These presidential acceptance speeches were inspiring, effective, and galvanizing. Franklin D. Roosevelt was president of the United States from 1933 to 1945. He is viewed as one of the best presidents since he effectively led the United States through two substantial crisis: the Great Depression in the 1930s, andRead MoreFranklin D. Roosevelt. During The Great Depression In The1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Franklin D. Roosevelt During The Great Depression in the United States, 13 million people and the country were in an economic crisis. The nation blamed the Republican party for the economic crisis and for their inability to fix it by the 1932 election.Thus, the election resulted in a win for Democratic Party and the former governor of New York, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. On March 4 1933, Roosevelt was inaugurated president by a nation in need of hope. FDR took action immediately to deal withRead MoreThe Great Depression By President Franklin D. Roosevelt1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCONTENTS PRINT CITE The Great Depression (1929-39) was the deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the Western industrialized world. In the United States, the Great Depression began soon after the stock market crash of October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out millions of investors. Over the next several years, consumer spending and investment dropped, causing steep declines in industrial output and rising levels of unemployment as failing companies laidRead MoreFixing the Great Depression with Franklin D. Roosevelt1432 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages When Franklin D. RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s administration was tasked with fixing the issues of the Great Depression the first step they took was creating programs to assist those in need. Although his programs pulled the United States out of the Great Depression they would prove to be a PandoraÃ¢â¬â¢s Box. Once the country was out of the depression these relief programs remained even when they were not needed. These progra ms would drain money from the Government and eventually lead to the bulk of the economic issuesRead MorePresident Franklin D. Roosevelt And The Great Depression Essay704 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesamid the New Deal, President Franklin D. Roosevelt s reaction to the Great Depression. Amid this period in the 1930s, the United States persevered through the most noticeably awful business emergency and the most noteworthy rate of unemployment in its history. Numerous Americans presumed that free private enterprise had fizzled. So they looked to government to straightforwardness hardships and lessen what had all the earmarks of being self-dangerous rivalry. Roosevelt and the Congress institutedRead MoreThe Great Depression By President Franklin D. Roosevelt Essay1931 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Great Depression was one of the about important milestones in American history. The Great Depression (1929-1939) was the deepest and also the longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the indust rialized world. In the United States, the Great Depression began trailing the straw hat circuit market have a go at each other on October 1929, which sent Wall Street facing a spasm and wiped on the wrong track millions of investors. Over the eventually ten forever and ever, consumer purchasingRead MoreThe Great Depression By President Franklin D. Roosevelt2478 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pageshumans grow to learn fear: fear of clowns, spiders, heights, water, insects, et cetera. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave his first inaugural address, in which he spoke those famous words that would be heard for decades to come: Ã¢â¬Å"the only thing we have to fear is fear itselfÃ¢â¬ânameless, unreasoning, unjustified terrorÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Roosevelt). While these words were referencing the Great Depression, they can apply to the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to 9/11. After the attack on the Twin Towers on September 11,